A Secondary Informal Circuit of Globalisation of Production: Home-based Cashew Workers in Kerala, India

Publication Type:

Journal Articles


Global Labour Journal, Volume 7, Issue 3, p.279-296 (2016)




cashew workers, global circuit, globalisation of production, India, informality, Kerala


The paper contributes to the literature that examines the connections between local and global by extending the focus of cross-border production circuits to the hinterlands within the nation. A secondary informal circuit is conceptualised in order to argue how the informal sector is coexisting with the formal sector and contributing to the global market. For this purpose, the case of the cashew nut processing industry in Kerala, India, has been examined. The network of clandestine home-based cashew processors identified during the field study in Kerala illustrates the less visible local nodes of the global cashew circuit. The study also explores the informal workers’ restricted options and choices due to their gender, health issues, age and financial liabilities.