Fuels for Sustainable Transport in India
Publication Type:Book Chapters
Source:Clean Fuels for Mobility. Energy, Environment, and Sustainability edited by Di Blasio G., Agarwal A.K., Belgiorno G., Shukla P.C. , Springer Nature, Number Part of the Energy, Environment, and Sustainability book series (ENENSU), Singapore, p.27-55 (2022)
Keywords:Alternative fuels, Energy Transition, Internal combustion engine (ICE), Surface transport
The fossil fuels have a 98% share in the energy consumption in the Indian transport sector. The Indian transport sector contributes to 13.2% of CO2 emissions in India. In the quest for cleaner fuels for the surface transport sector, a number of transportation energy sources fueling the vehicles (based on Internal Combustion Engines) have emerged as suitable alternatives in the 21st Century through decades of continued research and development efforts. Fuels such as natural gas (Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) or Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)), Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG), hydrogen, and biofuels have been the front runners as potential alternatives to crude oil-based gasoline and diesel. These alternative fuels for cleaner transport in India are detailed and compared on the basis of their physico-chemical properties, ignition characteristics, storage requirements, and safety parameters. The technical ‘availability’ of these fuels in the context of the Indian road transport is discussed as a segment of the broader analysis of these fuels under the 4A framework of Energy Security (Availability, Accessibility, Acceptability, and Affordability). These alternative fuels are characterized from two perspectives, i.e., fuel mix for the short to medium term use (during the energy transition in transport sector) and fuel mix for the long-term use (after the energy transition has taken place). These fuels driving the transport sector are also analyzed based on their use by two contrasting yet complementary segments, viz. passenger and freight. CNG and LPG are identified to be useful in the fuel mix for the passenger segment in the short to medium term future, while biodiesel is identified as a potential freight segment fuel in the similar timeframe. For the long-term future, ethanol is identified as a potential candidate for passenger segment, while LNG and Hydrogen are found to be suitable for the freight segment.