Chinese monopoly in rare earth elements: Supply-demand and industrial applications

Publication Type:

Journal Articles


China Report, Sage Publications, Volume 48, Number 4, p.449–468 (2012)



The concentration of rare earth elements (REEs) production in China raises the vital issue of supply susceptibility. Until recently, the global dependency on China for rare earths was a well-kept secret. But word started to spread fast after Beijing cut export quotas by 70 per cent for the second half of 2010, sending prices of some oxides?the purified form of rare earth elements sky-rocketing. This article seeks to evaluate what rare earth elements are and explores China?s role in the global supply-demand equations. It also explores the history of rare earth elements and China?s current monopoly over the industry, including possible repercussions if rare earth elements supply were to be disrupted.