Body, Self and Consciousness according to Tirumūlar’s Tirumandiram: A comparative study with Kashmir Śaivism

Publication Type:

Journal Articles


International Journal of Dharma Studies, Volume 5, Issue 3 (2017)



Tamil Siddha Tirumular Tirumandiram Consciousness Body Self Kashmir Śaivism Pratyabhijna


Tirumular’s Tirumandiram is the earliest known Tamil treatise on yoga. This text is considered to be both, a devotional work as well as a tantric text. Unlike other major Siddha compositions, Tirumandiram does not contain any section on medicinal preparations or alchemy. It is the only Tamil text where the sections are named tanṭiram. In contrast to the popular pluralistic Śaiva Siddhānta, Tirumandiram, one of the twelve Saiva cannons (tirumurai), is monistic in its philosophy. This study, while elaborating on the metaphysics of the text Tirumandiram, also examines the shared philosophical thoughts between the monistic Kashmir Śaivism and Tamil Siddha mystics